International Men's Day

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International Men's Day symbol
International Mens Day, Equality, Diversity and Six Pillars [1]

International Men's Day (IMD) is a grassroots annual international event celebrated on 19th November in over 60 countries. Started in 1992[2] in the USA and revived in 1999[3] in Trinidad and Tobago, the day and its events find support from a variety of individuals and groups globally.[4][5][6][7]

The 19 November is a significant date as it interfaces with Universal Children's Day on Nov 20, forming a 48 hour celebration of men and children respectively, and of "the special relationships they share"[8].

J. Teelucksingh, who in 1999 re-initialised the project,[3] says of International Men's Day,
"Nobody, including myself, has a monopoly or control of International Men’s Day. This Day belongs to the world. International Men’s Day is a gift to humanity. It is to be shared."[9]

The Six Pillars

The ‘6 Pillars’ of International Men’s Day

  1. To promote positive male role models; not just movie stars and sports men but everyday, working class men who are living decent, honest lives.

  2. To celebrate men’s positive contributions to society, community, family, marriage, child care, and to the environment

  3. To focus on men’s health and wellbeing; social, emotional, physical and spiritual.

  4. To highlight discrimination against men; in areas of social services, social attitudes and expectations, and law

  5. To improve gender relations and promote gender equality.

  6. To create a safer, better world; where people can be safe and grow to reach their full potential.

IMD Coordination Committee, ratified core objectives of International Men's Day, November 2009 [10][11]

Ideals and support

Speaking on behalf of UNESCO, Director of Women and Culture of Peace Ingeborg Breines said of IMD, "This is an excellent idea and would give some gender balance."[5] She added that UNESCO was looking forward to cooperating with the organizers.[4][5][6]

The objectives of celebrating an International Men's Day include focusing on men's and boys' health, improving gender relations, promoting gender equality, and highlighting positive male role models.[6][12][13][14]

It is an occasion to highlight discrimination against men and boys and to celebrate their achievements and contributions, in particular for their contributions to community, family, marriage, and child care.[12][15]

The broader and ultimate aim of the event is to promote basic humanitarian values.[16][17]

In summary, International Women’s Day started as a day for women to promote socialist objectives, especially for proletarian women to fight against oppression by the powerful upper classes comprised of men and women both. In the 1970’s it became a new movement claiming that men alone oppressed women, and that IWD will be used as a vehicle to highlight, primarily, the results of an assumed gender war. Said differently the focus of IWD shifted from a class war, to a gender war.

International Men’s Day is not based on the assumption of a gender war. IMD is primarily about celebrating positive male role models as an alternative to negative male stereotyping, the aim being to inspire a new generation of men and boys to develop self-worth and a desire to participate in the building of better relationships and societies.

International Men's Day - A Brief History, International Men's Day Global Website,
Jason Thompson 2009 - 2010
, [18]

International network

Countries holding observances of International Men's Day -2011
International Men's Day is celebrated in over 60 countries, including Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Denmark, Dominica, Ecuador, England, Finland, France, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Scotland, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Sweden, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Ukraine, United States, Uruguay, Vietnam, Wales and Zimbabwe.[19]


History

Early background

Red Army Day Celebrations, London, England, UK, February 1943, A general view of the Red Army Day concert in progress at the Royal Albert Hall, London.

Calls for an International Men's Day have been noted since at least the 1960s across multiple media, when it was reported that "many men have been agitating privately to make 23 Feb International Men's Day, the equivalent of 8 March, which is International Women's Day".[20][21][22][23][24][25]

In the Soviet Union 8 March was Red Army and Navy Day since 1922 which was later renamed Defender of the Fatherland Day.

The date was informally viewed a male counterpart of Women's Day (March 8) in some territories of the Union, however due to the day's limited focus to historical events some countries of the former union have, since 1999, moved to adopt the more 'male specific' November 19 as International Men's Day, including Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia.[17]

In 1968 American Journalist John P. Harris wrote an editorial in the Salina Journal highlighting a lack of balance in the Soviet system which promoted an International Women's Day for the female workers, without promoting a corresponding day for male workers.[21] Harris stated that while he did not begrudge Soviet women their March day of glory, it was clear that the lack of equality for males exhibited a serious flaw in the Communist system which, "makes much of the equal rights it has given the sexes, but as it turns out, the women are much more equal than the men."[26] Harris stated that while the men toiled along in their grooves doing what their government and womenfolk tell them to do, there was no day when males are recognised for their service, leading Harris to conclude that "This strikes me as unwarranted discrimination and rank injustice."[26]

Similar questions about the inequality of observing women's day without a corresponding men's day occurred in media publications from the 1960s through to the 1990s,[21][27][28][29][30][31] at which time the first attempts at inaugurating international Men's Day are recorded.[17]

Kansas 1990's

IMD Men's Day 7 Feb MCMXCIII (1993) Tshirt
IMD 1994 Publicity Materials

In the early 1990s, organizations in the United States, Australia and Malta held small events in February at the invitation of Professor Thomas Oaster who directed the Missouri Center for Men's Studies at the University of Missouri–Kansas City.[32] Starting 07 February 1992,[2] Oaster successfully promoted the event in 1993[33] and 1994,[34] but his following attempt in 1995 was poorly attended and he ceased plans to continue the event in subsequent years.[35]

From the outset, IMD was met with scepticism, criticism and hostility from feminist writers.[36][37][38]

Australians also ceased to observe the event (until they re-established it in 19 November 2003), whilst the Maltese Association for Men's Rights[39] continued as the only country that continued to observe the event each year in February. As the only remaining country still observing the original February date, the Maltese AMR Committee voted in 2009 to shift the date of their observation to 19 November to be in synchrony with all other countries which had begun to celebrate IMD on that date.[17][35][40]

While International Men's and Women's Day are considered together as 'gender focussed' events they are not ideological mirror images, as both events highlight issues considered unique to men or to women.[17]

The history of IMD is primarily concerned with celebrating issues considered unique to men’s and boys experiences, and the emphasis on positive role models "is deemed necessary in a social context which is often fascinated with images of males behaving badly... In highlighting positive male role models IMD attempts to show that males of all ages respond much more energetically to positive role models than they do to negative stereotyping."[41]

Trinidad and Tobago Revival

Citizens in Trinidad and Tobago were the first to observe IMD on 19 November 1999. The event was conceived and coordinated by Dr. Jerome Teelucksingh from The University of the West Indies at the Families in Action headquarters in Newtown, Port of Spain. As his rationale for creating the event Teelucksingh stated, "I realized there was no day for men... some have said that there is Father's Day, but what about young boys, teenagers and men who are not fathers?"[6] Dr. Teelucksingh, understanding the importance of celebrating good male role models, felt that his own father had been an example of an excellent role model and so chose 19 November partly because this was his father's birthday, and also because it was the date on which a local sporting team in his country created a level of unity which transcended gender, religious and ethnic divisions.[6] The idea of celebrating an International Men's Day received written support from officials in UNESCO and the event has continued to be celebrated annually in Trinidad and Tobago and other countries since its beginning.[42][43][44][45]

International Men's Day and International Women's Day contrasted

Answering Back: Girls, Boys and Feminism in Schools -
Rosemary: But every day is men’s day.
Judy: I didn’t like the idea of it.
Helena: Yeah, I just went and got some Tiny Teddies for the guys because they were missing out. [Laughter][46]

The observation of International Men’s and Women’s days involve numerous objectives, with both days highlighting issues considered unique to men or women. Two central but different currents of IWD and IMD include women’s fight against assumed oppression, and men’s attempts to celebrate positive male role models.[18]

Several popular myths concerning the origins of International Women’s Day exist, and the variety of accounts have created confusion amongst commentators of the event. For example, a widely bruited falsehood about IWD which surfaced in French Communist circles claimed women from clothing and textile factories had staged a protest on 8 March 1857 in New York City. This story alleged that garment workers were protesting against very poor working conditions and low wages and were attacked and dispersed by police. It was claimed that this event led to a rally in commemoration of its fiftieth anniversary in 1907, with this gathering constituting the very first IWD. In response to these claims Temma Kaplan explains that “Neither event seems to have taken place, but many Europeans think March 8, 1907 inaugurated International Women's Day.”.[47] Speculating about the origins of this 1857 legend Liliane Kandel and Françoise Picq suggested it was likely that (in recent times) some felt it opportune to detach International Women's Day from its basis in Soviet history and ascribe to it a more 'international' origin which could be painted as more ancient than Bolshevism and more spontaneous than a decision of Congress or the initiative of those women affiliated to the Party.[48][18]

Whilst numerous apocryphal stories of this nature exist, documentation shows that International Women’s Day was first initiated by German socialist Clara Zetkin in 1910 as a way to promote socialist political objectives and was always referred to by the political name ‘International Working Women’s Day’. Observation of the event was primarily restricted to the Soviet bloc. It wasn’t until the 1970s when women outside of the Soviet bloc looked to celebrating the event that the word ‘working’ was increasingly omitted along with much of it’s socialist meaning. Beginning in the 1970’s IWD also became subject to a feminist revisioning. Whereas IWWD was previously used to highlight working women’s oppression by a bourgeois and powerful upper class of both men and women, 1970s feminists revisioned the basis of the day by stating that it was now men alone as a class of “chauvinists” who wielded all power over all women who had each become victims of men’s domination. It was men’s oppressive rule which IWD must now focus on overthrowing. A decisive moment of the feminist revision came from the United Nations which officially endorsed and promoted the event from the late 1970s. Along with this endorsement the UN worked hard to get rid of IWDs socialist traits, a move which was not accepted by many socialist women's groups. For instance, in 1980 in Sweden socialist women's 'Grupp 8' rejected working with other women's organizations because it wanted to maintain the socialist origins and aims, saying "We have now conducted a number of discussions within our organization and come to the conclusion that, as representatives of the socialist women's movement, we cannot take part in a joint-party March 8 demonstration. After all, from the historical perspective, March 8 is the 'International Socialist Working Women's Day' and our organization feels that this should absolutely remain the case. Changing this would be like changing May 1. For this reason we are unable to endorse the UNs appeal." [49] The revisioned event was seen by socialist women as a betrayal of both it's earlier history and fundamental goals.[18]

With this new ideological turn women were no longer viewed as part of the privileged upper class, and those former oppressors of women- i.e. capitalism; traditional gender schemas imposed by powerful men and women; various laws, language and so on- were reduced to one all-encompassing enemy: males and their patriarchal belief system. This new ideological basis for IWD was elaborated in the late 1970s-80s under the label “patriarchy theory”[50] and it’s arrival correlated with a sharp increase in the numbers of women observing IWD, an interest no partly generated by heightened concerns or fears over ‘patriarchal oppression’ of women. In light of what appear to be oversimplified explanations proposed by ‘patriarchy theory’[51] IMD historian Jason Thompson proposed that the causes of oppression be explored in more sophisticated and nuanced ways to give International Women’s and Men’s Day’s credible platforms for promoting gender equality and improving gender relations.[52]

Say NO to stereotyping.jpg
International Men’s Day, as conceived by Dr. Jerome Teelucksingh in 1999, differs in origin and ideological basis to both the early and later phases of International Women’s Day, and early pioneers of IMD reminded that the day is not intended to compete against International Women's Day, but is for the purpose of highlighting men's experiences.[53][54]

Although the objectives of IMD occasionally intersect with those of IWD, such as advocating equality between the sexes, it is primarily concerned with celebrating positive male narratives and issues unique to men’s and boys experiences. Founders of IMD deemed the positive accent toward males as necessary in a social context that has become fascinated with images of males behaving badly, eg. media portrayals of males as stupid, emotionless, greedy, violent, dangerous, power-hungry, selfish, irresponsible and so on. Jason Thompson states that these negative male stereotypes are frequently promoted in an attempt to shame males into behaving more positively, ignoring the fact that the negative behaviours may not apply to the vast majority of men and boys, or that such negativity may detrimentally impact the self-image and self-esteem of boys, which in turn impacts their willingness to contribute to building better relationships and communities. In highlighting positive male role models IMD attempts to show that males of all ages respond much more energetically to positive role models than they do to negative stereotyping.[18]

While International Women’s Day started as a day for women to promote socialist objectives, especially for proletarian women to fight against oppression by the powerful upper classes comprised of men and women both, under feminist influence it later became a new movement claiming that men alone oppressed women, and that IWD would be re-modelled as a vehicle to highlight, primarily, the results of an assumed gender war. In Thompson's words, "the focus of IWD shifted from a class war, to a gender war." International Men’s Day provides an occasion to celebrate positive male role models as an alternative to negative male stereotyping, the aim being to inspire a new generation of men and boys to develop self-worth and a desire to participate in the building of better relationships and societies.[18]

Observation

According to its creators, International Men’s Day is a time to promote positive aspects of male identity based on the premise that "males of all ages respond much more energetically to positive role models than they do to negative stereotyping.".[18]

During past years the method of commemorating International Men's Day included public seminars, classroom activities at schools, radio and television programs, peaceful displays and marches, debates, panel discussions, award ceremonies, and art displays.[55][56] The manner of observing this annual day is optional, and any appropriate forums can be used. In 2009 the following broad objectives were ratified as a basis for all International Men’s Day observations, and are applied equally to men and boys irrespective of their age, ability, social background, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, religious belief and Intimate relationship|relationship status[1]:


  • To promote positive male role models; not just movie stars and sportsmen but everyday, working class men who are living decent, honest lives.
  • To celebrate men’s positive contributions to society, community, family, marriage, child care, and to the environment.
  • To focus on men’s health and wellbeing; social, emotional, physical and spiritual.
  • To highlight discrimination against men; in areas of social services, social attitudes and expectations, and law.
  • To improve gender relations and promote gender equality.
  • To create a safer, better world; where people can live free from harm and grow to reach their full potential

Six Pillars, 2009[1]

According to Men's Activism News Network, International Men's Day also interfaces with "Movember" – a worldwide moustache growing charity event held during November each year that raises funds and awareness for men's health, one of the key themes promoted on IMD.[57]

It also interfaces with Universal Children's Day on 20 November and forms a 48-hour celebration firstly of men, then children respectively, with a recognition of the bonds between them.[58]

Yearly theme

As well as the six Core Objectives, a secondary theme for IMD is usually suggested by world coordinators such as peace in 2002, men’s health in 2003, healing and forgiveness in 2007, positive male role models in 2009 and 'our children's future' in 2010. It is not compulsory to adopt these secondary themes and participants are welcome to establish individual themes to suit local needs and concerns.[8]

2011 "Giving Boys The Best Possible Start In Life"

In 2011 the theme for international Men's Day is 'boys' with the title, "Giving Boys The Best Possible Start In Life". This theme asks people around the world to focus on five key challenges that boys all over the world experience in areas of health, education, family life, violence and life choices and to consider local solutions to the global problems that boys face.[59]

2012 "Helping Men and Boys Live longer, Happier and Healthier Lives"

The theme for 2012 is 'health' with the title "Helping Men and Boys Live longer, Happier and Healthier Lives". The target areas nominated by IMD Founder Dr. Jerome Teelucksingh are; 1. Improving male life expectancy; 2. Helping men get help; 3. Improving boys' education; 4. Tackling tolerance of violence against men and boys; and 5. Promoting fathers and positive male role models. The 2012 theme highlights World Health Organization figures showing that every year over half a million people die from violence and 83% of them are men and boys, and that a similar proportion of the global burden of disease (ill-health, disability or early death) from violence is borne by boys and men.[60] [61]

2013 "Keeping Men and Boys safe"

The theme for 2013 as nominated by the IMD Coordination Committee is, "Keeping Men and Boys safe". The nominated target areas are, 1.Keeping men and boys Safe by tackling male suicide; 2. Keeping boys safe so they can become tomorrow’s role models; 3. Tackling our tolerance of violence against men and boys; 4. Boosting men’s life expectancy by keeping men and boys safe from avoidable illness and death; 5. and Keeping men and boys safe by promoting fathers and male role models. The 2013 Press Release asks, "People all over the world are used to relating to men as protectors and providers, but how often do we consider the actions we can all take to protect Men and Boys from harm and provide them with a safe world where they can thrive and prosper?" [62]

2014 "Working Together For Men and Boys"

The theme is to encourage greater cooperation in addressing issues that affect Men and Boys all over the world such as men’s shorter life expectancy, the high male suicide rate, our collective tolerance of violence against men, and the struggles that boys can face in getting an education and the unique challenges of father-child relationships.[63]

Further reading

  • International Men's Day: The Making of a Movement, Jason Thompson, 2010.[17]
  • International Men's Day, R.S.V.P.: Experience Education and Culture for Men and Women, Tom Oaster, 1992.[64]
  • International Men's Day Off: Research Materials, 1995 - Men's movement. [65]
  • Achieving Peace, Equality and A Healthy Environment, Jerome Teelucksingh, 2011.[11]
  • Do we really need an International Men's Day? Glen Poole, The Telegraph, 2013.[66]
  • Should there be an International Men's Day? Is this day a frightened reaction to an upturn in women's fortunes or a vital initiative to help improve the lives of men and boys? -Oscar Rickett and Glen Poole, guardian.com, 19 November 2013.[67]
  • The feminist principles behind International Men's Day - Men already dominate political and corporate hierachies, but feminism, currently healthier than ever, is doing solid work to support fathers who choose to stay at home with their children.[68]
  • International Men's Day: When 365 Days Just Aren't Enough[69]
  • Celebrating International Men’s Day: 10 Steps So Easy Even a Woman Can Follow Along, Juli Weiner, Vanity Fair[70]
  • Male victims of rape, sexual abuse and depression: Breaking the silence on International Men's Day, ALLY FOGG, The Independent[71]
  • Men too need gender equality: Activists (Nov 19 is International Men's Day), Firstpost, Nov 18 2014[72]
  • Spare a thought for men on day most choose to ignore,Standard Digital, 2014[73]
  • Ah-men! Capital finally wakes up to Men’s Day, Times Of India, 2014[74]
  • Why Every Man and Woman Should Celebrate International Men's Day, Glen Poole, 2014[75]
  • Alle aufm Klo – Klos für alle (All hail the toilet - toilets for all), Der Tagesspiegel, 2014[76]
  • Why has the Assembly given £30k to International Women’s Day... but not to International Men’s Day?, WalesOnline, 2011[77]
  • A day for men, too much to ask?, IBNLive, 2014[78]
  • Dr. Warren Farrell on International Men's Dayclick[79][80][81][82][83]

Related AVfM articles

References

  1. ^ a b c "IMD DIVERSITY STATEMENT". international-mens-day.com. International Men's Day Global Website. 2011. Archived from the original on Aug 31, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Wickman, G Fred (Jan 27, 1992). "About Town - Style". The Kansas City Star. pp. D6. Archived from the original on Sep 4, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Teelucksingh, Jerome (2010). "A World Without International Men's Day". international-mens-day.com. Archived from the original on Nov 10, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b 'UNESCO comes out in Support of International Men's Day', Article Trinidad Guardian 20 November 2001
  5. ^ a b c Ingeborg Breines, Director Women and a Culture Of Peace, UNESCO. "UNESCO WCP/99 13 July 1999". international-mens-day.com. Archived from the original on March 15, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d e International Men's Day Global Website Archive 1999–2000, International-mens-day.com, archived from the original on 04 February 2013, http://web.archive.org/web/20130204061710/http://www.international-mens-day.com/Historical_archive.php
  7. ^ INTERNATIONAL MEN'S DAY GLOBAL WEBSITE, HISTORICAL ARCHIVE at the Wayback Machine (archived March 16, 2010)
  8. ^ a b "We welcome you to the International Men's Day global website.". INTERNATIONAL MEN'S DAY GLOBAL WEBSITE. International Men's Day Global Website. Archived from the original on Jan 14, 2011. 
  9. ^ J. Teelucksingh (May 10, 2010). "Mystery of International Men’s Day". international-mens-day.com. "Persons have been wondering about the structure of International Men’s Day (IMD). Some have found it strange that there is no headquarters, base, anthem, uniform, flag or motto. Others noticed that there is no ranking, leader, membership cards or badges. A few persons have wondered why different websites are allowed and the existence of differences of opinion among supporters of IMD. The apparent weaknesses and shortcomings of IMD is actually its strength. The fewer restrictions, absence of formal structures, less bureaucracy and acceptance of differences, are actually the strength of Men’s Day. This makes this movement more appealing and inclusive. ... Nobody, including myself, has a monopoly or control of International Men’s Day. This Day belongs to the world. International Men’s Day is a gift to humanity. It is to be shared." 
  10. ^ "'SIX PILLARS' OF IMD". international-mens-day.com. international-mens-day.com. Archived from the original on Feb 24, 2011. "OBJECTIVES OF INTERNATIONAL MEN’S DAY The ‘6 Pillars’ of International Men’s Day 1. To promote positive male role models; not just movie stars and sports men but everyday, working class men who are living decent, honest lives. 2. To celebrate men’s positive contributions to society, community, family, marriage, child care, and to the environment 3. To focus on men’s health and wellbeing; social, emotional, physical and spiritual. 4. To highlight discrimination against men; in areas of social services, social attitudes and expectations, and law 5. To improve gender relations and promote gender equality. 6. To create a safer, better world; where people can be safe and grow to reach their full potential. ENDORSED BY THE INTERNATIONAL MEN'S DAY COORDINATION COMMITTEE Trinidad & West Indies: Dr. Jerome Teelucksingh, Founder - International Men's Day Australia: Warwick Marsh, Global Coordinator - International Men's Day Australia: Jason Thompson, Global Promotions Coordinator - International Men's Day India: Uma Challa, International Men's Day Coordinator for India USA: D.A. Sears, International Men's Coordinator for USA" 
  11. ^ a b Jerome Teelucksingh (8 December 2011). Achieving Peace, Equality and A Healthy Environment. AuthorHouse. p. xv. ISBN 978-1-4634-4217-0. 
  12. ^ a b Gouldson, Phil. "PRESS RELEASE International Men’s Day – Who Cares?". international-mens-day.com. international-mens-day.com. Archived from the original on August 31, 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-17. "PRESS RELEASE International Men’s Day – Who Cares? Wednesday 19 November is International Men’s Day – or is it? There is much conjecture about International Men’s Day, whether it is held on the 19th of November or the 7th of February, or even if it is celebrated at all. PHIL GOULDSON, President of the Men’s Health and Wellbeing Assoc. (ACT), believes that such a day is desperately needed to highlight the issues affecting the physical, social and emotional health of boys and men and generating positive attitudes in the community. “International Men’s Day is about celebrating manhood and the contributions and achievements men make to the people in our communities, society and environment,” he said. “It is also about being proud to be a man. Society has developed a very negative view of men and too often depicts manhood as bad, focusing on ‘men behaving badly’ or men as uncaring.” The link between how people are perceived and portrayed in society has a major impact on their self-esteem, their sense of identity, sense of purpose and their optimism, which in turn has a direct impact on their health and wellbeing. “It is time we started changing our consciousness and attitudes about men and boys. Many men, especially young men, in our society are struggling, confused, hurting and lost. The health and wellbeing of our men and boys is abysmal, and if you look at our Aboriginal brothers… it is simply disgraceful.”" 
  13. ^ Balramsingh, Harrack (Nov 13, 2001). "Letters to the Editor Join in Celebrating International Men's Day". caymannetnews.com. Archived from the original on Nov 13, 2001. "Join in Celebrating International Men's Day Dear Sir, The International Men's Day Committee is calling on organisations and individuals throughout the Caribbean and around the world to join with them in celebrating International Men's Day (IMD) on 19 November 2001. While the committee has received an overwhelming response from groups in North America, the Caribbean and Europe, there is still plenty of work to be done to get people throughout the world to recognize the importance of this special day for men. The objectives of celebrating an International Men's Day include improving gender relations, promoting gender equality, producing responsible males and highlighting positive male role models. The annual observance of International Men's Day on 19 November also seeks to address problems and challenges facing men. These issues include the involvement of men in domestic violence, drug abuse, fathering, sports, power and politics, religion, parenting, suicides and family life. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), which is based in Paris, France, has come out in support of International Men's Day (IMD) which started in Trinidad in 1999. Speaking on behalf of UNESCO, Ms. Ingeborg Breines, Director of Women and Culture of Peace, said: This is an excellent idea and would give some gender balance. She added that her organisation was looking forward to cooperating with the organisers of the IMD. We are also hoping to receive the unequivocal support of the wonderful citizens of the Cayman Islands and other Caribbean islands. Harrack Balramsingh Coordinator IMD Committee 44 Dumfries Road La Romaine Trinidad, West Indies hbalram@tstt.net.tt" 
  14. ^ "INTERNATIONAL MEN'S DAY GLOBAL WEBSITE - Trinidad And Tobago". international-mens-day.com. Archived from the original on Jan 14, 2010. "Early objectives of IMD proposed by Dr. Teelucksingh were 1. Improving gender relations between men and women, 2. Addressing problems and challenges of men, 3. Promoting gender equality, 4. Highlighting positive role models, and 5. Creating a safer, better world. Of these he emphasised the importance of positive male role models, "not just movie stars and sports men but everyday, working class men who are living decent, honest lives". He also suggested there had developed an unfair practice of 'stereotyping' and 'unfairly branding' males as perpetrators of violence in homes and in society, and said that this was one of the issues he hoped to start addressing." 
  15. ^ "International Men's Day on Nov 19 to highlight plight of men". Outllook India. Outlook Publishing (India. NOV 16, 2007. Archived from the original on Dec 25, 2007. 
  16. ^ Teelucksingh, J. 'Achieving Peace, Equality and a Healthy Environment' Pub. Author House, 2011.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Jason Thompson (2010). International Men's Day: The Making of a Movement. Soul Books. ISBN 978-0-646-54972-9. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g International Men's Day - A Brief History by Jason Thompson 2009 - 2010 at the Wayback Machine (archived September 3, 2012)
  19. ^ "We welcome you to the International Men's Day Global Website". international-mens-day.com. international-mens-day.com. Archived from the original on Aug 26, 2012. 
  20. ^ By BERNARD GWERTZMANSpecial to The New York Times (24 February 1969), Armed Forces Day in Soviet Marked by Rhetoric and Parties; Article, (February 24, 1969) in New York Times, Select.nytimes.com, http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F7081FFD3959147493C6AB1789D85F4D8685F9, retrieved 20 November 2011
  21. ^ a b c "PRE-1990'S DOCUMENTS". international-mens-day.com. INTERNATIONAL MEN'S DAY GLOBAL WEBSITE. Archived from the original on Sep 3, 2012. 
  22. ^ Czechoslovak Life. Orbis. 1988. p. 45. 
  23. ^ Nikolaĭ Nikolaevich Nosov (1 January 1989). Rat-a-tat-tat!: stories. Raduga Publishers. ISBN 978-5-05-002481-7. 
  24. ^ John Gooding (1965). The Catkin and the Icicle: Aspects of Russia. Constable. 
  25. ^ Drum: A Magazine of Africa for Africa. African Drum Publications. August 2001. p. 6. 
  26. ^ a b John P. Harris, 'Red Women – Painted Town', Salina Journal, p.4. 28 March 1964
  27. ^ "TODAY: Work, Work, Work". Pittsburg Post Gazette. Mar 08, 1979. p. 1. 
  28. ^ Michelle Games (Mar 19, 1979). "Letters to the Editor : Astounding". Daily Collegian. p. 2. "After reading Jill Jacoby's letter on International Women’s Day, I was astounded at my ignorance. I was not aware of this illustrious day, and I would appreciate it if she would inform me of the date of International Men’s Day. Though a women's studies major is being formulated. I’ve not yet heard of any ~ major in “men's studies," or any “men's center.”" 
  29. ^ "Letters to the Editor : "Think Again" & "Boggling"". Daily Collegian. Mar 22, 1979. p. 2. "This is in response to Michelle Games, who hasn't heard of International Men‘s Day, or of any Men's centers, or of the Penn State Men‘s studies program, Well, I haven't heard of any of these either, or at least none so specifically named. Men‘s centers sound like a good idea. They could teach job search skills to middle-aged men who have never worked outside of the home, and they could run a rape crisis center for male rape victims. And what about the problems of unmarried fathers? 01’ course. there are other Men's centers. such as Old Main. but they aren't meeting the special needs that so many men have. No International Men‘s Day? Why don't we call the Fourth of July International Men's Day? On that date a roomful of men got together and decided that an men (read males) were created equal. The event concerned white males; the ladies were not remembered. If this isn't so. why did we ever need a Nineteenth Amendment and why does anyone even bother to think about an Equal Rights Amendment? A degree in Men's studies sounds like a great idea — except that anyone who has ever graduated from Penn State already has one. Surely in the past 5,000 years women have been doing and thinking something, but few of my courses have told me about it. On the other hand. I've learned a lot about what men have been thinking and doing. Lorraine Underwood 12th-sociology - Michelle Games (March 19th) asks to be informed of the date of International Men‘s Day. There isn't just one day set aside for men, Michelle, there are 364 of them. Only March am has been designated for women and your concern about this "illustrious" day is well taken. After all. it we give them one day they will undoubtedly demand a week; the next thing we know women will be demanding an entire year of equality. justice, respect and freedom from sex discrimination. Just the thought of it boggles the mind! Ralph Smith, graduate-recreation and parks" 
  30. ^ Campbell, Kathy (February 28, 1983). "WHY INTERNATIONAL WQMEN'S DAY?". Pro Tem Glendon's bilingual newspaper. p. 5. Archived from the original on Nov 18, 2014. "In answer to the question why there is no International Men’s Day, it is left to men themselves to discover this. It is a great misunderstanding on the part of people to believe that Inter- national Women’s Day excludes men. All people suffer injustices in various forms, men and women alike. However, be- cause the injustices against wo- men have been so blatant and extreme and because it is a universally male-dominated world, women have had to form such a day for protest and celebration. Once men fully realize that universal male dominance is harmful to them also, as people. they will gladly join women in their protest against this out- rage. This is a very good place to add that men are invited and welcome to our celebration." 
  31. ^ "Missing Persons". The Age. Mar 7, 1983. p. 12. "We see that tomorrow is Inter national Women's Day. When is International Men's Day? Or rather, shouldn't we have Inter national Person's Day?" 
  32. ^ International Men's Day Archives, Kansas Stream 1991–1992, International-mens-day.com, archived from the original on Nov 10, 2010, http://web.archive.org/web/20101110024043/http://international-mens-day.com/Kasnsas_stream_archive.php
  33. ^ GURLEY, GEORGE (February 6, 1993). "Finally, men get their day". Kansas City Star. "Tom Oaster got the idea for an International Men's Day when he and some others were sitting around after a men's group meeting, nursing male grievances. Prominent was the feeling that men are unappreciated. We ought to go on strike, someone said. Then maybe people would take notice of the work men do. Oaster softened the strike concept to a men's day off. Eventually he dropped that word, but the idea germinated. It came to fruition with the Men's Day celebration that began Friday at the Westin Crown Center hotel. An associate professor at UMKC, Oaster was first attracted to the men's movement by an intellectual interest. But he soon felt persecuted for his association with a subject that's politically incorrect. "I got beat up, slammed," he said. "People said, `What - do you hate women? ' The more I got beat up, the more I got drawn in. My Teutonic background took over. " Oaster dug in. He became a male advocate with polemical, provocative views. Men and women have been involved in a warlike "dance" since the beginning of time, he said. He concedes that women have legitimate grievances. But men are "bleeding in their boots, too. " Oaster turns the idea of "male domination" on its head. "I personally believe we live in a world where the dangerous jobs are foisted upon men," he said. "Women aren't really trying to dig down to the mud floor jobs. My experience is that they won't change the tire, even if your back is hurt. They will not go downstairs and check to see what's going on. " Men change the tires and then get called "bums" because they don't get all the grease off their fingers in time for supper, he said. Some statistics suggest that men aren't significantly more violent than women in domestic situations, according to Oaster. He gets his worst beatings when he tries to point out that there are two sides to these issues, he said. "Guys are changing," he said. "They're ! learning to sit down in groups and talk about what it means to be a man and a father. What some men were getting from the Elks, the Eagles and all that kind of jazz isn't happening any more. " In contrast to the women's movement, which he sees as outwardly directed to the world of affairs, men need to journey inward and get in touch with themselves. But there also are "tons of problems involved with the lack of a clearly defined and appropriately reinforced male role in society," Oaster said. Pieces of the men's movement pie include father's rights, men's rights, recovery and personal growth groups, mythopoetic activities. The International Men's Day Celebration offers lectures and discussions about men's health, male myths, men in literature and subjects like man bashing." 
  34. ^ "Bulletin". The Guardian. Feb 7, 1994. p. 31. 
  35. ^ a b International Men's Day Archives, Kansas Stream 1993–1994, International Men's Day Global Website, archived from the original on Nov 10, 2010, http://web.archive.org/web/20101110024039/http://international-mens-day.com/Kansas_stream_1993_1994.php
  36. ^ Helen Wilkinson (1994). No Turning Back: Generations and the Genderquake. Demos. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-898309-75-8. "Controversies around date rape and sexual harassment by women are also gaining currency.And this year an International Men’s day was even proclaimed in blatant competition to International Women’s Day. One overriding theme is dominant: the fear that the gender issue has now come full circle with men the new victims, discriminated against by a legislative framework of equal opportunities, and a climate of political correctness which skews power too much in the direction of women and an economic climate which needs their skills. Feminists have argued — less so here in the UK it is worth noting — that evidence of resentments, managerial resistance and heightened gender tension in the workplace, even the growth of an anti—feminist ‘men’s rights’ movement, is something to be expected — that men could never be expected to relinquish power gracefully and that they are simply shouting in the transitional phase of a power shift." 
  37. ^ Diane Bell; Renate Klein (1996). Radically Speaking: Feminism Reclaimed. Spinifex Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-875559-38-1. "Publishing books relating to masculinity and the “men‘s movement" is also a money maker. Robert Bly‘s best seller Iron John (1992). which focused on “male-healing“, and Sam Keen‘s Fire in the Belly On Being a Man (1992) are prime examples of this in the United States their success has prompted a host of self-help manuals for men to understand themselves and their feelings, including titles like The Grown-Up Man and Heroes Healing. Men's rights groups in the United States have also declared February 7, International Men‘s Day. In Britain, the publication of books by anti-feminist male writers such as Neil Lyndon (1992) and David Thomas (1993), who claim that as a result of feminism men are now the disadvantaged sex. have also attracted media attention." 
  38. ^ Lynne Segal (1994). Straight Sex: Rethinking the Politics of Pleasure. University of California Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-520-20001-2. 
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  46. ^ Jill Blackmore; Jane Kenway; Leonie Rennie; Sue Willis (14 January 2004). Answering Back: Girls, Boys and Feminism in Schools. Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-134-67554-8. "On International Women’s Day, Joan organised a special lunch for girls and women only. Some of her girls thought it was ‘great’ but others, many boys and some male staff were rather cross that males had not been invited. Judy: My music teacher is a guy who will think of sexism, he will stop men putting women down. But we both agreed that it’s being sexist towards men because there isn’t an International Men’s Day. Rosemary: But every day is men’s day. Judy: I didn’t like the idea of it. Helena: Yeah, I just went and got some Tiny Teddies for the guys because they were missing out. [Laughter]" 
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